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101 Guide: What Is a Battery Energy Storage System

In 2022, the market size of the global solar energy storage battery market was USD 3.33 billion, and it is estimated to surpass USD 20.01 billion by 2030. There is a high market potential for battery energy storage systems because of the increasing need for grid energy storage systems and the rising demand for renewable energy.

Solar energy storage batteries offer cost-effective, environment-friendly, and sustainable energy solutions. Solar energy storage systems are used in residential, commercial, and even industrial settings. Wondering what is a bess? What is a battery energy storage system? What are storage batteries? Read on to learn everything about battery energy storage systems.

What Is an Energy Storage System? 

What is an energy storage system? ESS, widely known as energy storage systems, are devices that are utilized to store energy and supply it later to power other appliances. The ESS for home and commercial centers are very reliable and safe as they react quickly to power variations.

There are different types of energy storage systems, which include chemical energy storage systems, electrical energy storage systems, mechanical energy storage systems, and battery energy storage systems.

Chemical Energy Storage System 

The chemical energy storage systems utilize electricity to create a chemical that can be utilized as a fuel for generating electricity. They are known for storing the energy in chemical bonds. These energy storage systems contain hydrogen and various hydrogen-rich chemical energy carriers. For instance, hydrogen has the capacity to save energy for short or extended periods.  

Electrical Energy Storage System 

In order to store energy in the form of electricity, electrical energy systems utilize an electrochemical dual-layer charge. They are also called ultra-capacitors or electrochemical double-layer capacitors and require low maintenance.

These energy systems supply power to appliances by releasing the coils and can discharge immediately. Some of the best types of electrical energy systems include lithium-ion batteries and lead-acid batteries like AGM batteries.

Mechanical Energy Storage System 

Mechanical energy storage systems store energy by exerting force on a suitable medium to produce displacement, compression, or acceleration. The kinetic energy that is stored can be recovered by reversing the process. Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES), Pumped Hydro-Storage (PHS), Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES), and Flywheel Energy Storage Systems (FESS) are some of the primary types of mechanical energy storage systems.

Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) 

As we move into a renewable energy future where the need for sustainable solutions is high, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are becoming very vital. BESS is critical for modern power systems because it can help to meet growing energy demands, integrate renewable energy sources, and maintain grid stability.

Continue reading to know what is battery energy storage system is, how does battery storage work, what are the benefits of battery energy storage systems, and many more.

Solar Battery System

What Is a Battery Energy Storage System? 

What is BESS, and what does BESS stand for? Firstly, the full form of BESS is a battery energy storage system. The battery energy storage systems will catch energy from various renewable and non-renewable energy sources. This energy is usually stored in rechargeable solar batteries and used later.

As DC devices, the batteries will get rid of any imbalance between energy supply and demand by discharging electrochemical energy as required in order to fulfill electrical needs. Some of the most common applications of these battery energy storage systems are smart residential homes, solar power installations, EVs, electrical grids, and many more.

BESS is a crucial technology due to the rise in renewable energy sources and the push for net zero carbon emissions. These energy systems have adjustable energy capacities and are adaptable. Battery energy storage solutions are becoming popular because of the need for highly secure and reliable battery backup power for emergencies.

In simple terms, a battery energy storage system is essentially made up of one or more batteries that are used to store electrical energy for later consumption. When required, this stored energy can be utilized to power various types of appliances.

How Does a Battery Energy Storage System Work?  

Want to know how does energy storage work? Then check out this section, where we explain the working principle of the solar energy storage system and the main components of a battery energy storage system.

The battery energy storage systems get energy from renewable energy sources (like solar and wind), on-site generators, and the electrical grid. The type of energy source that is used will depend on the BESS. So, how does a battery store energy? Using battery energy storage technology, the batteries will store the energy that is generated. The most common type of battery utilized in battery energy storage systems is the lithium-ion battery.

Batteries, a power conversion system (PCS), and an energy management system (EMS) are the main parts of a BESS. The batteries will store the electrical energy. The power conversion system (PCS) transforms the electrical energy stored in the batteries to and from the voltage and frequency required by the load. The energy management system (EMS) will monitor and control the operation of the battery energy storage systems.

The batteries will start to discharge in order to release energy whenever required, like during power blackouts, grid balancing, or peak demand. To put it simply, the energy storage systems will discharge the energy by converting the chemical energy that is stored in the batteries into electrical energy.

Main Sections of a Battery Energy Storage System 

The primary components of a battery energy storage system are battery modules, battery management system (BMS), inverter or power conversion system (PCS), energy management system (EMS), cooling system, safety system (fire protection), and enclosure.

Battery Modules 

Battery modules are the essential part of a battery energy storage system and store the electrical energy. They are made up of individual battery cells that are attached together in series and parallel in order to achieve the desired voltage and capacity.

Battery Management System (BMS) 

The battery management system is responsible for monitoring and controlling the battery pack. It monitors and tracks the state of charge of the battery, avoids overcharging and over-discharging, and protects the battery from damage. In addition, the BMS balances the cells in the battery pack in order to make sure that they are all charging and discharging uniformly.

Inverter or Power Conversion System (PCS) 

The inverter or power conversion system (PCS) will convert the DC power from the battery pack to AC power that can be utilized to power homes and businesses. The PCS also controls the flow of power between the battery pack and the grid.

Energy Management System (EMS) 

The energy management system (EMS) is a vital component of the BESS and controls all of the other parts. It optimizes the charging and discharging of the battery pack to satisfy the needs of the clients. In addition to that, EMS communicates with the grid in order to deliver backup power and control the frequency and voltage.

Cooling System 

The cooling system in the BESS will keep the battery pack from overheating. This is crucial because batteries can yield heat when they are charging and discharging. Overheating has the potential to damage the battery and decrease its lifespan up to an extent.

Safety System (Fire Protection) 

The safety system will protect the battery pack from fire when batteries catch fire in case of overheating or damage. The safety system generally contains temperature sensors, smoke detectors, and many more.


The enclosure is the external part that houses all of the other components of the battery energy storage system. The enclosure is usually made of sturdy materials, and it protects the internal parts from various elements and provides a safe and secure environment.

Advantages of Battery Energy Storage Systems 

There are plenty of advantages to having battery energy storage systems for residential homes, industries, and even commercial areas. The major benefits are listed below.

Renewable Energy 

The battery energy storage system has the potential to capture renewable energy from sources like the sun, wind, etc., and store it, which can be used later. By installing a BESS, it is possible to use renewable energy sources far more effectively.  

Backup Power 

Having a backup power supply has become vital due to severe weather or prolonged blackouts. Power outages can be destructive for commercial and industrial settings, which lead to excessive downtime and time-consuming recovery procedures. In the case of a power outage, an emergency ESS for industry and commerce ensures that your business is running smoothly without any difficulty.

Grid Independence  

For residential homes and industries that have their own renewable energy generation, like solar panels, a battery energy storage system allows for better energy self-sufficiency. It is possible to store extra power that is produced and save it for later use, which lessens their dependence on the grid.

Long-term Cost Savings 

Even though installing battery energy storage systems is not inexpensive, they help you save money in the long run. Wondering how? With BESS, you can save a significant amount of money on your electricity bills. In addition to that, battery energy storage systems add value to your establishment.  

Reduce Carbon Footprint 

It is easy to become more self-sufficient and lessen the carbon imprint by installing solar energy storage batteries. For anyone looking to reduce pollution and cut back on greenhouse gas emissions, solar battery energy storage solutions are the best. They emit far less pollution compared to fossil fuels and are also environment-friendly.

There are numerous ways to apply BESS in order to improve the benefits listed above. Here are some examples everyone should be aware of:

Power rationing period backup power supply 

The battery energy storage systems can be utilized to give backup power during power outages or rationing periods. This can be especially beneficial for commercial and emergency facilities, such as hospitals and data centers. One can use BESS to power their residential homes and businesses during power outages.

Dynamic expansion to lower transformer costs 

The battery energy storage system can be used to postpone or stop the need to upgrade transformers as electrical demand rises. This can save industries and commercial centers a significant amount of money. It is also possible to use BESS to help establishments manage their peak demand, which can lead to lower electricity rates.

Distributed generation 

The BESS battery can be utilized to store energy generated from distributed generation sources like rooftop solar panels. This can help to integrate distributed generation into the grid and enhance reliability. The battery energy storage system can also provide backup power for DG systems so that they can continue to work even during power outages.

Peak shaving 

The battery energy storage systems have the capacity to lessen peak electricity demand by storing significant amounts of energy during off-peak periods and discharging it during peak periods. This can help businesses and commercial centers save money on peak demand charges.

Get government subsidies 

Governments are offering numerous subsidies and other incentives for using battery energy storage systems. Companies and homeowners can take advantage of these incentives to decrease the cost of installing a BESS.  

Battery for Solar Energy Storage  

Lithium Battery

Solar panels and energy storage work together to deliver a reliable and sustainable source of electricity to homes and businesses. How does energy storage work together with solar panels? Here is a detailed explanation.

Solar photovoltaics or solar PV technology generates electricity from sunlight as solar PV panels collect solar radiation and produce electrical current. Sunlight causes electrons in solar PV cells to break free from their atoms. An electric current is produced by these electrons as they move through the cell. Depending on the total sunlight that is received by the solar PV panel, the total electricity that is produced will differ.

The inverter in the solar energy storage system will transform the DC electricity from the battery bank to AC electricity, which can be utilized to supply power to your residences and businesses directly. As solar panels only produce electricity when the sun is shining, energy storage is vital in order to store extra electricity, which can be used at night or during emergencies.

The solar energy storage systems can be utilized as a backup power source when the power goes out. It is also possible to sell the extra electricity that is generated by the solar panels to the grid, so you can save up on electricity bills.

Types Of Solar Battery For Energy Storage 

There are different types of solar batteries for energy storage, such as lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and Nickel-cadmium Ni-Cd batteries.

  • Lead-acid Batteries 

Lead-acid batteries have been on the market since numerous years and are the most well-known type of solar battery. Sealed lead-acid solar batteries and flooded lead-acid solar batteries are the two main types of lead-acid solar batteries. The lead-acid batteries show compatibility with the majority of the global solar systems. They work for a long time, and disposing of and recycling these batteries is relatively easy.

  • Lithium-ion Batteries 

In the solar battery industry, lithium-ion batteries are relatively new but became quickly popular because of their portability and higher battery energy density. Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide or NMC batteries and lithium iron phosphate or LFP batteries are the two primary types of lithium-ion batteries. These batteries have a higher depth of discharge, do not need regular maintenance, and have a long lifespan in comparison to lead-acid batteries.

  • Nickel-cadmium Batteries 

Ni-Cd, popularly known as Nickel-cadmium Ni-Cd batteries are another type of solar battery for energy storage. These batteries do not require complex battery management systems and have terrific discharge capabilities of about 80% to 100%. On average, their lifespan is 20 years, and are mainly utilized in large-scale commercial settings. These batteries have a good operating temperature range and can operate well in extreme temperatures.

Technological Challenges for Solar Battery Energy Storage Systems 

C&I ESS with Air Cooling

Though solar battery energy storage systems have many advantages, there are also quite a few technological challenges, which are listed below:

Battery Technology 

One of the major challenges for solar battery energy storage systems is battery technology itself. Batteries need to be energy-efficient, budget-friendly, and have a long lifespan in order to fulfill the energy needs of various applications. At present, battery technologies like lithium-ion, lead-acid, and Nickel-cadmium are used, but they still have some limitations in some areas.

BLJ Solar tested and mixed over 20 different materials for the electrolyte and developed the most advanced electrolyte formula. The new electrolyte formula is a significant breakthrough in lead-acid battery technology. It enables BLJ batteries to deliver more power, last longer, and perform better in extreme conditions.

Cooling Technology 

While charging and discharging, the solar batteries are likely to generate heat. It is vital to disperse this heat in order to deter the batteries from overheating and stop working. Solar battery energy storage systems need to have effective cooling systems in order to make sure that the batteries operate safely and efficiently.

The BLJ Solar batteries are equipped with a liquid cooling system with ≤3°Celsius temperature difference between battery cells. This liquid cooling system is known for optimizing battery cooling performance in order to expand battery lifespan.

Fire Protection 

Solar batteries can also cause a fire hazard if they are not adequately managed. It is important for solar battery energy storage systems to have fire protection systems in order to prevent and extinguish fires in case of battery failure.

The BLJ Solar batteries have fire protection systems, which makes them 100% safer. In addition to that, they have an IP65 design enclosure and C5 anti-corrosion, making them safe for outdoor use as well.

BMS Design 

The battery management system (BMS) is accountable for continuously monitoring and controlling the batteries in a solar battery energy storage system. The battery management system is vital to make sure the safety and performance of the energy storage system.

If the solar battery energy storage system has intricate BMSs, then it will be able to handle the complex challenges of managing numerous batteries. The BLJ Solar batteries have intelligent and advanced BMS that can monitor and control the batteries in the energy storage systems. They also have remote APP control functions.

Thermal Runaway 

Thermal runaway is a situation where the battery cells will overheat and discharge energy, which is likely to provoke nearby cells to overheat and discharge energy as well. As a result of this chain reaction, it may cause an explosion or a fire.

High-quality Home, Commercial & Industrial Solar Energy Storage System from BLJ


BLJ Solar was launched in 2012 and is a reliable solar product manufacturer. We specialize in offering high-end, affordable, and safe solar batteries for energy storage systems for residential, industrial, and commercial settings. Our product catalog also features solar inverters, solar panels, portable power stations, and many more.

We only use premium-quality and sturdy materials to make electric storage batteries. We have an in-house R&D team that can also create custom power storage batteries that meet your unique power requirements. Our solar batteries undergo different inspections, which include battery tests, reliability tests, safety tests, BMS tests, environmental adaptability tests, and overall performance tests.

Our built-in manufacturing unit has 20+ advanced production lines. BLJ Solar has a 25,000㎡ warehouse and factory, which makes solar battery production and storage easier. We have various certifications, such as OHSAS 18001, ISO 9001, ISO 14001, etc. We have a 24/7 technical support team who will respond to and resolve your technical queries as soon as possible.

Solar Energy Storage System

Here are some of the best features of BLJ Solar batteries that make the best choice for residential, industrial, and commercial settings:

  • C5 anti-corrosion and IP65 design
  • Low LCOE within the 20-Year Life Cycle
  • Liquid Cooling System
  • Advanced battery management system (BMS)
  • Air Conditioning and Fire Protection  
  • 30% Longer Lifespan (20 years average lifespan)
  • 5-10% reduction in lifecycle cost per kWh
  • 0 Parallel Loss and 20%+ Battery Capacity Expansion
  • 2 Charge and 2 Discharge for Efficient Peak Shaving
  • Installation and Commissioning Support
  • After-sales Service and Technical Support


In the future, the popularity and usage of solar batteries for energy storage systems will increase because of their market potential, such as affordability, environmentally-friendly, grid independence, and access to power even during power blackouts and emergencies. It is important to choose a trusted solar battery manufacturer when acquiring solar batteries in bulk for your business.

If you are interested in buying safer, more efficient, reliable, smarter, and affordable battery technologies and energy storage solutions, make sure to contact BLJ Solar directly. From high-quality solar batteries to 24/7 technical support, BLJ Solar is here to help you with everything.

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