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What Are the 4 Main Types of Solar Batteries

Because of the high cost of electricity and the switch from non-renewable to renewable energy sources, solar items are becoming more and more popular. Businesses, huge industries, and even residences are turning to solar energy for power generation and energy storage. Due to their ability to conserve energy, reduce carbon emissions, save money, and be used in emergencies, solar batteries are quite popular.

The market share of solar batteries was 0.2 billion in 2022; it is predicted that this number will increase to 0.79 billion by the end of 2032. Before choosing this market, one should understand and have basic knowledge about different types of solar batteries in order to better serve their customers. You can read this blog to learn how to choose the best solar cell for your own project or to suggest the best solar battery types to your clients.

What Are Solar Batteries? 

Want to know what are solar batteries? Solar batteries are used to store extra energy produced by solar panels. Even when the sun is not shining, solar batteries can still be used to power your home, place of business, or any other location.

Using photovoltaic cells, the solar panels will convert solar energy into electricity (chemical energy). The chemical energy is then saved for later use in these solar batteries. In solar batteries, extra chemical energy will be turned into usable electricity. As a result, they can be readily used to power your place at any time.

One of the major benefits of solar batteries is that they help to reduce electricity costs. They can provide backup power during power outages. Solar batteries also boost energy independence by decreasing dependency on the grid. In addition to that, solar batteries can decrease environmental impact by accumulating clean energy from the sun, which can lessen the usage of fossil fuels.

Solar field with battery storage

What Are The 4 Main Types of Solar Batteries? 

At present, there are 4 primary types of solar batteries, such as lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, and flow batteries.

Lead-acid Batteries 

In the solar industry, lead-acid batteries have been used since several years and are also known as deep-cycle batteries. They are also the most popular types of solar batteries because of their affordability and reliability. Sealed and flooded are two types of lead-acid batteries.


  • Relatively the most affordable compared to other solar battery types
  • Highly reliable batteries and this technology has been in the industry for a long time
  • It is easy to dispose of and recycle these batteries
  • They are compatible with the majority of the global solar systems


  • Compared to other solar battery types, lead-acid batteries are very heavy and bulky.
  • Short lifespan because of low depth of discharge
  • More frequent charging is required

Types of Lead-acid Batteries for Solar 

There are two primary types of lead-acid solar batteries, such as flooded lead-acid solar batteries and sealed lead-acid solar batteries. The maintenance and the build of these lead-acid solar batteries are relatively different.

  • Maintenance: Sealed lead-acid solar batteries are usually maintenance-free and do not need maintenance on a regular basis. For flooded lead-acid solar batteries, they are high-maintenance and need thorough maintenance frequently.
  • Venting: Compared to flooded lead-acid solar batteries, sealed lead-acid solar batteries need to be vented in order to deter the accumulation of hydrogen gas.
  • Types: Sealed lead-acid solar batteries are available in two different versions, which are Absorbent Glass Mat (AGM) and gel batteries. There are no variations in flooded lead-acid solar batteries.
  • Safety: Coming to safety, the sealed lead-acid solar batteries are relatively safer compared to the flooded lead-acid batteries. This is because of the sealing design aspect of the sealed lead-acid solar batteries.
  • Durability: The flooded solar lead-acid batteries are less durable compared to the sealed lead-acid solar batteries.
  • Price: In comparison to flooded lead-acid batteries, sealed lead-acid solar batteries are more expensive.

They are Best for:

Lead-acid solar batteries are the best choice for backup energy storage, which can be used during emergencies or power outages. As they are reliable, it is also ideal to use them for off-grid solar systems.

Best Lead-acid Battery 

BLJ’s lead-acid battery is the best solar lead-acid battery because it has a long service life and a slow self-discharge rate. This battery is relatively safe and shows great temperature resistance (-50°celsius to 70°celsius). It has a maintenance-free design and is made of high-quality materials, so it is resistant to heat, shock, chemicals, and vibration.  

Sealed Gel Type Battery

Lithium-ion Batteries 

Lithium-ion batteries are the new type of solar batteries in the industry which have become the most common batteries for residential solar panel systems. Though they are compact, they have a higher battery energy density.


  • They retain an increased discharge capacity compared to other batteries
  • Lightweight and smaller in size
  • They last longer compared to lead-acid batteries due to their long lifespan
  • Little to no regular maintenance
  • They have a higher depth of discharge


  • For installing these batteries, special equipment is necessary
  • They are very expensive compared to other types of solar batteries
  • More chances of batteries catching fire, jeopardizing safety

Types of Lithium-ion Batteries for Solar 

There are two different types of lithium-ion batteries, which are lithium iron phosphate or LFP batteries and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide or NMC batteries.  

  • Energy and power density: The energy density and power density of the lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries are higher compared to the lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) batteries.
  • Technology: The technology of the NMC batteries is relatively old in comparison to the new technology of the LFP batteries.
  • Price: Generally, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) batteries cost less. However, the price of phosphate (LFP) batteries is very expensive.

They are Best for 

The lithium-ion solar batteries are the most suitable choice for residential usage. It is because they are compact, lightweight, do not accept much space, last longer, and have the capacity to store more energy.

Best Lithium-ion Battery 

BLJ lithium battery 12.8V100Ah is the best budget-friendly, safe, and low-maintenance lithium-ion battery. This is a LiFePO4 battery and the charging and discharging operating temperatures are 0°celsius to 55°celsius and -20°celsius to 60°celsius.

Lithium-ion battery

Nickel-cadmium Batteries 

Nickel-cadmium, also called Ni-Cd batteries, are rechargeable batteries with an 80% to 100% discharge rate. These batteries are primarily used in commercial, large-scale projects and are not that common in residential systems.  


  • They can work well even in extreme temperatures
  • They have excellent discharge capabilities of about 80% to 100%
  • Need less maintenance in comparison to other solar batteries
  • Commonly used in large-scale projects and does not need complicated battery management systems  
  • They last for a long time as their lifespan is typically 20 years or more


  • The main element used in these batteries is cadmium, which is very dangerous
  • It negatively affects our environment
  • They will gradually lose their power to hold the charge
  • Cadmium is toxic, difficult to dispose of, and also banned in a few countries

They are Best for:

Nickel-cadmium batteries are the best choice for major commercial settings like airlines, huge industries, etc. This is because they have extreme temperature resistance and high discharge capabilities.

Nickel-cadmium batteries

Flow Batteries 

Another latest technology where the water-based electrolytes pass through the dual inner compartments is the flow batteries. The chemical reactions inside the batteries are responsible for the charging and discharging of the flow batteries. In order to improve their energy storage capacity, all one has to do is add more compartments to the batteries.


  • They are known for having 100% discharge capabilities
  • Relatively safer option
  • You can simply add more tanks for more storage capacity
  • They contain no flammable and non-toxic materials
  • They have a lifespan of 20 years on average or more


  • These batteries weigh a lot and can not be moved easily
  • They are relatively expensive compared to other solar batteries
  • These batteries have less power density
  • They are on the high-maintenance end and need constant refilling and flushing.  

They are Best for:

Due to their incredible efficiency and 100% discharge capabilities, flow batteries are great options for large-scale, industrial, and commercial spaces instead of small residential areas.

Flow batteries

Tips for Choosing Solar Batteries 

There are plenty of solar batteries in the current market, so it can be difficult for consumers to buy the proper solar batteries. In order to make it easy for buyers, we have carefully listed some of the best tips that help people choose the most suitable solar batteries.

Consider the Real Needs 

The first thing to consider when choosing solar batteries is specifying your real needs and your requirements. One should consider the geography and climate of their location because solar batteries have different temperature resistance.

It is also important to consider your energy production. For example, what kind of solar panel system do you own? What is the energy production capacity of the solar panel system? Another thing to consider is your budget. Depending on that, one can either choose affordable or expensive solar batteries.

One should also consider their energy consumption needs as well. For example, if you need solar batteries for residential areas where energy consumption is minimal, it is better to buy lead-acid batteries and lithium-ion batteries. For commercial areas with high energy consumption needs, Nickel-cadmium batteries and flow batteries are the best choice.

Study Battery Performance Carefully 

Battery performance is the primary factor that determines what type of solar battery is ideal for you. Check the capacity of the battery which is calculated in kilowatt-hours (kWh) and it specifies the total energy that can be stored by the solar battery.

One should also keep an eye on the depth of discharge which is the total energy that can be used by the battery before the battery needs to be recharged. Round-trip efficiency is another vital indicator of the battery performance which specifies how much energy the solar battery can hold and retrieve after it is charged. Consider the lifespan of the solar battery as well.  

Pay Attention to the Warranty and the Quality of the Manufacturer 

Warranty plays a vital role when selecting the right type of solar battery. The majority of good-quality solar batteries come with an average warranty of 10 years. Some high-end solar batteries even have a 15-year warranty. One should also consider the quality of the manufacturer as well. Check if the manufacturer uses high-quality or not and keep an eye on their experience and reputation.

BLJ Solar: Experienced OEM Solar Battery Manufacturer in China 


BLJ Solar is a top manufacturer of solar batteries and was established in 2012. We have a skilled R&D team that has combined and tried out more than 20 different materials for the electrolyte. We ultimately developed a highly reliable electrolyte formula that keeps our lead-acid batteries efficient and increases their lifespan.

At BLJ Solar, we have an in-house manufacturing unit and 20+ production lines. We follow ISO 9001, OHSAS 18001, and ISO 14001 quality standards and we have advanced inspection equipment. Our solar batteries comply with various global standards, such as SDS, KC, CQC, IEC, CB, ROHS, REACH, UN38.3, CE,  MSDS, etc.

We have a 25,000㎡ warehouse and factory, and our monthly capacity is 2.56MWh. Our inspection team conducts various tests before processing our solar batteries and ESS for our clients, such as battery tests, reliability tests, safety tests, BMS tests, environmental adaptability tests, and overall performance tests. We only import high-quality raw materials from reputed suppliers.

Wrapping Up 

The usage of solar batteries is rising in residential and commercial settings as well. From reducing carbon footprint to better energy storage, there are many benefits of solar batteries. As mentioned above, there are different types of solar batteries that are ideal for different purposes.

It is best to get in touch with a trustworthy solar battery manufacturer to obtain solar batteries for your business. Make sure to contact BLJ Solar for any wholesale or OEM solar battery needs and get instant quotes.

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